Ubuntu/Backtrack: Read only filesystem fix

Long long time same prob with VMs..
forgot to take a snapshot, it didn’t shutdown correctly, and in next boot stucks in fsck check..
It is a huge problem having lot of ppl with VMs..
Finaly i came to a solution reading lot of forums.. I combined them to a single solution..

Most ppl say that you’ll solve your prob doing this
mount -o remount,rw /

But that didn’t work in my case..


I fixed my issue in the followng steps..:

– First of all, while you are in the read-only filesystem, check your boot errors with [code]dmesg |grep mount[/code]
and you may see some msg saying that it remounted your system in read-only mode (like “remount-ro”)
Remember this.. we’ll compare it to the next dmesg after following these steps:

1. Boot with a ubuntu/backtrack live iso

2. Mount the filesystem
mkdir /root/test
mount /dev/sda1 /root/test

3. And edit /etc/fstab of the mounted drive in /root/test/etc/fstab nano /root/test/etc/fstab and change to zero all counters..
Also if there is an error status writing “error=…” and “remount-ro” delete it and replace with “defaults” save the file and exit..

4. Type the following inline bash script to fix all drive errors:
for i in $(ls /dev/sd*);do e2fsck $i -C0;done

..and reboot..
After reboot check errors dmesg |grep mount
If the remount-ro message is missing, you are ok.. :p

That’s it..

Pentesting ToolKits and Targets


Here we go.

We need knowledge, we need tools and targets we need  a lab  environment.

It is illegal to try penetration procedures in live environments without the written permissions of the owner so a test environment is a must have.  In a another post I will  analyze how we can create a lab environment, for now lets see  a list in no particular order of toolkits and targets. Luckily enough there are plenty out there.!

This list will always be updated .

Penetration Toolkits
These  are live CDs or DVDs. I am not going to analyze any of this right now. I am using the Backtrack linux distribution probably because is the first one I started with or…….

These are live CDs, projects or vmdk files. You can use them  for pen-testing skill development and testing.